It is understandable for parents to have concerns when their child is diagnosed with ADHD, especially about treatments. It is important for parents to remember that while ADHD can’t be cured, it can be successfully managed. There are many treatment options, so parents and doctors should work closely with everyone involved in the child’s treatment — teachers, coaches, therapists, and other family members. Taking advantage of all the resources available will help you guide your child towards success. Remember, you are your child’s strongest advocate!
In most cases, ADHD is best treated with a combination of medication and behavior therapy. Good treatment plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups and any changes needed along the way.
Following are treatment options for ADHD:
- Behavioral intervention strategies
- Parent training
- ADHD and school
To go to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement on the treatment of school-aged children with ADHD, visit the Recommendations page.
Medication can help a child with ADHD in their everyday life and may be a valuable part of a child’s treatment. Medication is one option that may help better control some of the behavior problems that have led to trouble in the past with family, friends and at school.
Several different types of medications may be used to treat ADHD:
- Stimulants are the best-known and most widely used treatments. Between 70-80 percent of children with ADHD respond positively to these medications.
- Nonstimulants were approved for treating ADHD in 2003. This medication seems to have fewer side effects than stimulants and can last up to 24 hours.
Medications can affect children differently, where one child may respond well to one medication, but not another. When determining the best treatment, the doctor might try different medications and doses, so it is important to work with your child’s doctor to find the medication that works best for your child.
For more information on treatments, please click one of the following links:
Research shows that behavioral therapy is an important part of treatment for children with ADHD. ADHD affects not only a child’s ability to pay attention or sit still at school, it also affects relationships with family and how well they do in their classes. Behavioral therapy is another treatment option that can help reduce these problems for children and should be started as soon as a diagnosis is made.
Following are examples that might help with your child’s behavioral therapy:
- Create a routine. Try to follow the same schedule every day, from wake-up time to bedtime.
- Get organized. Put schoolbags, clothing, and toys in the same place every day so your child will be less likely to lose them.
- Avoid distractions. Turn off the TV, radio, and computer, especially when your child is doing homework.
- Limit choices. Offer a choice between two things (this outfit, meal, toy, etc., or that one) so that your child isn’t overwhelmed and overstimulated.
- Change your interactions with your child. Instead of long-winded explanations and cajoling, use clear, brief directions to remind your child of responsibilities.
- Use goals and rewards. Use a chart to list goals and track positive behaviors, then reward your child’s efforts. Be sure the goals are realistic—baby steps are important!
- Discipline effectively. Instead of yelling or spanking, use timeouts or removal of privileges as consequences for inappropriate behavior.
- Help your child discover a talent. All kids need to experience success to feel good about themselves. Finding out what your child does well — whether it’s sports, art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem.
Another important part of treatment for a child with ADHD is parent training. Children with ADHD may not respond to the usual parenting practices, so experts recommend parent education. This approach has been successful in educating parents on how to teach their kids about organization, develop problem-solving skills and cope with their ADHD symptoms.
Parent training can be conducted in groups or with individual families and are offered by therapists or in special classes. Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) offers a unique educational program to help parents and individuals navigate the challenges of ADHD across the lifespan. Find more information about CHADD’s “Parent to Parent” program by visiting CHADD’s Web site.
ADHD and the Classroom
Just like with parent training, it is important for teachers to have the needed skills to help children manage their ADHD. However, since the majority of children with ADHD are not enrolled in special education classes, their teachers will most likely be regular education teachers who might know very little about ADHD and could benefit from assistance and guidance.
Here are some tips to share with teachers for classroom success:
- Use a homework folder for parent-teacher communications
- Make assignments clear
- Give positive reinforcement
- Be sensitive to self-esteem issues
- Involve the school counselor or psychologist
What Every Parent Should Know….
As your child’s most important advocate, you should become familiar with your child’s medical, legal, and educational rights. Kids with ADHD might be eligible for special services or accommodations at school under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) and an anti-discrimination law known as Section 504. To learn more about Section 504, click here.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke SG; Pelham, Jr., William E.; and Hoza, Betsy. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Problems in peer Relations: Predictions From Childhood to Adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, November 2001, 40(11):1285-1292.
Barkley RA., et al. Driving related risks and outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: a 3-to5 year follow up survey, Pediatrics, August 1993; 92(2):212-218
DiScala, C., et al. “Injuries to Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics, December 1998, 102(6):1415-1421.
Green M, Wong M, Atkins D, et al. Diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Technical Review 3. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1999. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research publication 99-0050.
Guevara, J., et al. “Utilization and Cost of Health Care Services for Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics, July 2001, 108(1):71-78.
Hann, Della M. and Borek, Nicolette, Eds. Taking Stock of Risk Factors for Child/Youth Externalizing Behavior Problems. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institute of Mental Health/NIH, 2001.
Hodgens, J. Bart; Cole, Joyce; and Boldizar, Janet. Peer-Based Differences Among Boys With ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2000, 29(3):443-452.
Leibson, C., et al. Use and Costs of Medical Care for Children and Adolescents With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, JAMA, 3 January 2001, 285 (1):60-66.
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Mental Health. Decade of the Brain-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. U.S government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NIH 96-3572.
New York University Child Study Center. I.M.P.A.C.T. (Investigating the Mindset of Parents about ADHD & Children Today) Survey, 2001.
Woodward, Lianne J. and Ferguson, David M. Childhood Peer Relationship Problems and Psychosocial Adjustment in Late Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, February 1999.